Foot and Ankle Deformities

Yurkanin Foot and Ankle Reconstructive Center offers a range of treatments for various foot and ankle deformities. With modern amenities such as onsite digital x-ray and ultrasound, Dr. Yurkanin provides patients with compassionate care that is timely and effective. Dr. Yurkanin provides services for the following foot and ankle deformities:


Bunions are painful bumps that can form atop the joint of your big toe, causing the front part of your foot to lean outwards. Tailor’s bunions, or bunionettes, are bumps caused by an over prominent fifth metatarsal bone in the little toe. Both bunions and tailor’s bunions generally have hereditary causes and exhibit similar symptoms.

Symptoms of bunions and tailor’s bunions include redness, swelling, and a sensation of pain or soreness at the affected area. With bunions, these symptoms occur at the big toe and with tailor’s bunions they occur at the little toe. With both, these symptoms tend to get worse when wearing shoes that cause the foot to be constricted.

Bunions and tailor’s bunions can usually be diagnosed through a visual exam, however x-rays may be taken to determine their severity. Non-surgical treatments for bunions and tailor’s bunions include: altering footwear and activity level, supporting the foot with padding or orthotic devices, icing to reduce pain, or the use of oral or injected medications.

If surgery is needed, Dr. Yurkanin’s approach to bunion surgery corrects bunions anatomically. This may be performed with, traditional screw fixation, plates or through a percutaneous approach with a wire. In most cases, patients are able to walk immediately after surgery. If a wire is used to correct the bunion deformity, it is removed in the office within the first 3-4 weeks of the surgery.

Cross Over Toe (Plantar Plate Tear):

Cross over toe occurs when one toe is positioned so that it “crosses” over an adjacent toe. It is most commonly observed in the second toe, but can happen in any of the toes. Cross over toe is caused by an injury to the plantar plate, which is a ligament in the ball of the foot. In addition to a toe that is crossed over, symptoms can include pain, swelling, and possible bruising.

To diagnose a cross over toe, Dr. Yurkanin will perform a physical exam and possibly use imaging diagnostics such as x-rays or an MRI. Non-surgical treatment for cross over toe include properly supporting the arch with padding, taping, or orthotics, changes in footwear or activity, physical therapy, and the use of oral or injected anti-inflammatory medications.

If surgery is required, Dr. Yurkanin will begin by making an incision on the top of your foot over the affected toe. Next, she will access your plantar plate and repair it by using special tools to suture the tear. Then, small holes will be drilled in the base of the toe bone (proximal phalanx) and the sutures will be passed through these holes to stabilize the bone and the ligament, thus restoring the toe to its proper alignment.

Drop Foot:

Drop foot is classified by an inability to lift the front portion of the foot while walking due to a nerve, muscle, or central nervous system disorder. This causes the foot to be dragged or  “steppage” gait in which the thigh is lifted to lift the foot.

To diagnose drop foot, Dr. Yurkanin will perform an examination and possible x-rays. Non-surgical treatment for drop foot includes braces to add support to the foot, physical therapy to help remedy muscle disorders, and electrical nerve stimulation to help remedy nerve disorders. Surgical treatment may also be a necessity for some cases and can include tendon transfers or even repairing the injured nerve.

Flatfoot (Fallen Arches):

Flatfoot is defined by feet whose arches have been partially or totally collapsed. Partially collapsed arches cause the arch to flatten only when bearing weight, while totally collapsed arches maintain flatness constantly, even when not bearing weight. Symptoms of flatfoot include: pain in the heel, arch, ankle, or outside of the foot, shin splints, aching or fatigue in the foot or leg, and pain in the lower back, hip, or knee. Flatfoot can also cause the toes to point outward and the ankles to point inward, creating a predisposition for other foot conditions, including: plantar fasciitis, bunions, and hammertoes.

To diagnose flatfoot, Dr. Yurkanin will examine your feet while sitting and standing, and take x-rays to view the internal structure. If you are experiencing symptoms, your treatment will depend upon the type of flatfoot you are diagnosed with and the severity of your symptoms. Treatment for flatfoot begins with non-surgical options, such as: modifying your activities and shoes, losing weight, using orthotics, immobilizing your foot temporarily, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), attending physical therapy, and wearing a specialized brace called an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). If non-surgical treatments do not remedy the problem, then surgical treatment may be required to decrease pain, improve function, and correct the structural misalignment. When surgery is performed, it may entail repair of the tendon, tendon transfers, or cutting and realigning the bone.

Cavus Foot (High Arches):

Cavus foot is the name given to feet that have abnormally high arches and exert pressure on the ball, heel, and outer edge of the foot when walking or standing. Due to this distribution of pressure, individuals with cavus foot often develop foot problems such as hammertoes, calluses, ankle sprains, and foot drop, in addition to pain localized on the top and middle of the foot.

To properly diagnose cavus foot, Dr. Yurkanin will perform an examination of your feet, ask you about your family history, observe your gait, take x-rays, and perform a basic neurologic test.  It is also important to determine the cause of your cavus foot since the underlying cause often determines how the condition progresses. In cases where cavus foot is caused by a neurologic disorder or medical condition such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, spina bifida, polio, muscular dystrophy, or stroke, it is expected the condition will continue to progress. In cases where cavus foot is caused from inherited structural abnormality, there is usually no progression.

Treatment for cavus foot generally includes non-surgical options such as orthotics, shoe modifications, and bracing. Orthotics, or custom-made shoe inserts, help position your foot properly to prevent rolling and promote proper gait, as well as providing additional cushion. Shoe modification, such as wearing high-topped shoes or shoes with wide heels, add support, stability, and prevent your ankle from rolling sideways. Bracing is another option that can also be used to prevent sideways rolling and food drop. In some cases, surgery may be needed. If this is the case, Dr. Yurkanin will evaluate your individual case and make surgical recommendations.

Haglund’s Deformity (Pump Bump):

Haglund’s deformity occurs when a bone spur forms on the back of the heel and aggravates the tissues surrounding the achilles tendon. This can result in bursitis, which is an inflammation of the fluid-filled sac that resides between the tendon and the bone (bursa). Haglund’s deformity can be caused by high-arched feet, a tight achilles tendon, and walking on the outside of the heel. It can be further exasperated, or in some causes directly caused, by wearing shoes with rigid backs that aggravate the enlargement on the heel. Symptoms of Haglund’s deformity include a visible bump on the back of the heel, pain where the achilles tendon meets the heel, and swelling, redness, or inflammation in the back of the heel.

To diagnose Haglund’s deformity, Dr. Yurkanin will perform a physical examination and take x-rays. Non-surgical treatments for Haglund’s deformity can include stretching exercises to loosen the achilles tendon, shoe modifications, the use of heel lifts or pads for support, physical therapy, orthotics, and temporary immobilization. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and ice therapy may be used to manage pain and reduce inflammation.

If surgery is needed, an incision will be made along the back of the achilles tendon. Dr. Yurkanin will begin by removing any excess thickening of the achilles tendon caused by tendonosis. Then, the achilles tendon will be separated from the bone spur so that the bone spur can be removed with the use of a specialized bone saw. Once the bone spur has been removed, then the tendon will be reconstructed around the newly formed heel using the SpeedBridge technique. This technique provides stability during reconstruction, by drilling four specialized sutures into the heel bone that are then used to attach and support the achilles tendon by properly compressing it against the bone.  This technique improves ankle stability and allows for earlier weight bearing.

Yurkanin Foot and Ankle Reconstructive Center practices excellence in treating all of your foot and ankle needs, from minimally invasive surgery to complicated reconstructions for foot and ankle problems. Take a step in the right direction and schedule your consultation today!

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“Thursday, August 16th was my first visit with Dr. Yurkanin. She was extremely nice and is doing everything to help me with my ankle. I also had to have an X-ray done in the office and her staff was extremely nice and was super nice to my 6 year old”
Dr Yurkanin is so compassionate, very easy to talk to and explains everything so you understand before leaving your appointment I highly recommend her!
Dr. Yurkanin is an excellent podiatrist and surgeon. She is very compassionate, and takes the time to explain everything you need to know about your treatment options. I wouldn't go to anyone else!
I highly recommend Dr. Yurkanin to anyone looking for a quality podiatrist! I’ve liked her from day one and now that she’s in her own office I like her 100x more. She’s a great doctor and surgeon, along with being pleasant and patient.  I truly appreciate her skills and personality.